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Jeff Parker, Florida Today and the Fort Myers News-Press

Funding Our Future

Employers Rely on a Well-Educated Workforce


Thursday, August 7, 2014
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The Public Policy Institute of California projects that by 2025 California will be one million baccalaureate degrees short of meeting the economic productivity demands of our economy. For the first time in recent history, California is on track to produce a generation that has a lower education attainment than their parents. The state’s direct enrollment rate from high school into four-year colleges is among the lowest in the nation, and although students who transfer from community colleges to the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) have high success rates, transfer rates are very low.

This is a serious wake-up call; we need to prioritize ongoing funding for higher education. The prosperity of our state depends on qualified and prepared individuals in our workforce. I believe it is the responsibility of our state government and higher education institutions to ensure college is both affordable and accessible to all qualified students. As chair of the Assembly Committee on Higher Education, I have made reinvesting in higher education a top priority, but more must be done.

Recently, the California Department of Finance announced that property tax revenues did not exceed projections. This nullified a state budget trigger that would have provided an additional $100 million for the UC and CSU. However, due to an unexpected windfall of revenue from streams other than property taxes, Assembly Speaker Toni Atkins (D-San Diego) is advocating for Assembly Bill 1476 and Senate Bill 872 to restore $100 million in funding for UC and CSU. The bills allocate $50 million to each for deferred maintenance or other onetime purposes.

Unlike the budget adopted earlier this year, this new effort expresses the Legislature’s intent to make these funds permanent for the purpose of expanding enrollment and improving services for students if the economy and revenues continue to rebound.

I applaud Speaker Atkins’s swift commitment to dedicating more funding for UC and CSU. And I encourage the legislative leaders and Governor Brown to give serious consideration to making these funds ongoing. Ongoing funding is a critical factor to expanding enrollment to qualified students and a significant investment in California’s future workforce. We need more enrollment slots for more qualified California children to become the engine of our future economy.

As policymakers, it is vital that we ensure the prosperity of this state; our three public higher education systems are central to that prosperity. They account for over 80 percent of higher education enrollment in California and three-fourths of all bachelor’s degrees awarded annually.

Every time I meet leaders from local industries that pay good wages, I ask them why they remain located in California. Nearly all say it’s because they have access to skilled, well-educated employees. Higher education fuels the innovation that drives California’s robust economy, and a well-trained, skilled workforce can meet the growing needs of our state’s evolving industries. Well-educated workers can also expect to bring home larger paychecks, leading to increased state revenues. Additionally, higher education improves quality of life by expanding career opportunities, lifting families out of poverty and exposing students to new ways of thinking.

According to the Campaign for College Opportunity (a nonprofit organization with a mission of ensuring all students have access to higher education), California receives a $4.50 return on investment for every $1 it invests in higher education.

For all these reasons and for many more, it is crucial that we designate ongoing funds to our higher education systems. Every eligible student deserves the opportunity to have a spot in a college classroom. Ongoing funding will create the stability that our colleges need to accept more students.

Comments

Independent Discussion Guidelines

Tell you what, you want to keep me interested you cut the saleries of the administrators and stop teaching worthless classes and we the people will consider your ideas.
Until then you can suffer along like the rest of us common proles.

sslocal (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 12:46 p.m. (Suggest removal)

A different perspective:

"Just Say No to college! Why it’s the Worst Decision a Young American can Make

For today's grads, a job is no sure thing, but decades of debt may be. And don't get me started on the "education"

By Matthew Saccaro

Salon

August 7, 2014

Each autumn, millions of young Americans parade into colleges with cheap plastic furniture in tow, expecting their work over the next four years to result in a career worth going into debt for. Instead, they jeopardize their futures. There’s not a worse decision a young American can make than attending college sans parental money or massive scholarship.

Let’s start off with the basics. In 2012, 71 percent of all students who graduated accrued some amount of student loan debt, with the average amount of debt soaring to $29,400. More than half of student loans officially became delinquent or in deferral in 2013. New information indicates this trend will only worsen; recent college graduates face the worst unemployment rate in more than 20 years, as well as severe underemployment, with 44 percent of grads saying they could find work but not enough of it. Not even the vaunted STEM fields are immune from the perils of cheap labor, smartsizing, and the Great Recession.

Here’s where college apologists will say debt used to acquire a degree is “good debt” since it ultimately pays off in the end — both because the degree will land you a job and provide “intellectual enrichment” and “critical thinking” and other impossible to quantify, dubious buzzwords used in college marketing pamphlets across the country.

This baby boomer-esque sentiment is garbage.

First of all, there’s a decent chance that students will be indebted forever. Tuition is increasing so much it’s outpacing inflation. That money isn’t even going into educating the students and/or providing them with highly valuable internships during school or jobs after graduation. Instead, much of the tuition dollars are being funneled into administrator salaries, as well as salaries for coaches and athletic directors and other sports-related nonsense. Tuition dollars are also crucial in providing amenities that are absent in some 5-star hotels. Yet colleges across the country are sporting these luxuries, things like mega-gyms, gourmet eateries, washing machines that make the Curiosity rover look like an obsolescent tin can, and more. Colleges are spending money on salaries and sales gimmicks, not on what matters.

“Hey, kids! Come to our college; we’re Club Med. Oh and yeah there are some courses but that’s not important.”"

Read More:

http://www.lewrockwell.com/2014/08/no...

loonpt (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 12:55 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Say "YES" to higher education: colleges, universities.

Beware of taking advice from a loon

:)

Ken_Volok (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 1:12 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Say yes to education, say no to debt, monopoly state run institutions and enslavement.

You can take free courses from Harvard and Standford online from the comfort of your own home, in your spare time. There are plenty of ways to educate yourself without going into a lifetime of debt.

Kids are herded into colleges these days like cattle, they are expected to go and it is proving to be detrimental for most of them.

I'm not against the idea of college, I'm against what it has become and think that people should carefully consider both sides before making a decision for themselves.

loonpt (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 1:22 p.m. (Suggest removal)

The answer is simple Das:

1. Increase spending on non-classroom administrators. 76% of SB school district funds *never see a classroom*. In 1956 in SB it was 23%. Clearly this helps our kids.

2. Increase the power and control Unions who have the best interest of kids over their own interests and have demonstrated this by: increases in drop out rates, stagnant test scores, lowering of expectations of students and huge increase in compensation - now at more than $106K/yr for the average union member in our school district (salary + benefits).

3. Roll out crazy confusing and totally perplexing new standards and teaching methods like Common Core.

If you, Das Williams, continue to vote for the organizations that help keep you employed (ie: Unions and their sympathizers), then our kids win!

Clearly!

realitycheck88 (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 2:04 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Nice post RC!

Botany (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 2:32 p.m. (Suggest removal)

We need a real fix.. Not just more money to Das's union friends.

loneranger (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 6:28 p.m. (Suggest removal)

"the prosperity of our state depends on qualified and prepared individuals in our workforce" - No, it doesn't; it depends on individuals who can think, and who are encouraged to develop their individual abilities, not individuals who can perform as dumbed-down cogs in non-functioning institutions and bureaucracies; the work training that's substituted for education in the Common Core program, and that's intentionally destroying US prosperity.

14noscams (anonymous profile)
August 7, 2014 at 8:56 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Good leadership here Das, and agree Ken Volok: increased support for higher ed in Calif. is crucial both for our economy AND to have responsible citizens who vote thoughtfully. However, Das is late to this game: see for example http://www.independent.com/news/2013/... and the 2011 reference therein.
We know that UC is much less state-supported than in the past; reduced State support for UC and the State Univ. systems began with the sick Reagan as Gov. years. UC is practically a private institution, and it's really expensive in point of fact.
Realitycheck has one good criticism: Common Core is a mess, both left and right dislike huge parts of it, and a lot of it is about giving money to tech companies, NOT to hiring great teachers.

DavyBrown (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 1:26 a.m. (Suggest removal)

This is a wake-up call for all Californians, our public education system is a crucial part of the economy in our wonderful state. The return on investment is one of the safest and smartest thing choices we can make in our lifetime!

tranders111 (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 10:38 a.m. (Suggest removal)

This is a great conversation that we should include everyone in. Education is an important driver in today's world, California should take the step forward and continue to be the leader in education!

andersonpeasoup (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 11:01 a.m. (Suggest removal)

The demographics have changed in the past generation. California isn't what it used to be. Taxpayers' money is to be spent fulfilling the "dreams" of Obama's "dreamers" while high tech jobs are filled by Asians educated cheaply in Asia. Women fill the universities, but cannot substitute for men educated in the physical sciences.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 12:56 p.m. (Suggest removal)

If Americans could be educated cheaply in America those high tech jobs would probably go to them. Women educated in the physical sciences are far more intelligent than you could comprehend with your dinosaur brain there dewdly.

Ken_Volok (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 1:29 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Ken,

Few women go into the physical sciences, Ken, they are too busy getting their PhDs in feminist studies and gender studies. If schools established affirmative action quotas for women in the physical sciences, as they do in law and medicine they would have trouble finding qualified women to fill the quotas and would be turning away more qualified men.

In spite of fifty years of feminism, young women still expect to find husbands in college though they are loathe to admit it - especially to each other. But listen in on any coed conversation and the most frequently uttered word is "relationship" - a euphemism for what used to be called a boyfriend ("we're serious") or fiance. Very few women would forego marriage and children for a career in the physical sciences so they are told - disingenuously - that they can do both. Women are not more intelligent than men and they come with reproductive baggage. Filling the universities with women simply means we will not be educating our men.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 2:44 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Wow you really must be cut off from the real world dewdly.

Ken_Volok (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 2:57 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Hey Dewdly!

My wife is getting her PhD in engineering at UCSB. She's a smart intelligent woman and I'm proud of her. She's not a baby-making factory as you would prefer. You have more in common with the Taliban than you do civilized society.

Botany (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 3 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Well obviously there are many women who can compete intellectually with men in the field of sciences and engineering, but anybody who has taken an engineering class knows that they are usually filled with a dozen to several dozen men and between 0-2 women. Women who are interested in sciences and engineering should pursue it, but I wouldn't create programs or give incentives to push women into a field that they are generally less interested in than men.

dewdly tends to over-generalize, but many of his overall sentiments are not terribly far off from reality.

loonpt (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 4:08 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Botany,

Don't you realize that it is a crude insult to all mothers to refer to them as "baby-making" factories?

Very few women would choose career over love, marriage, and childbearing and that is why they are told that they don't have to choose. A few years ago, the distinguished biologist, researcher, and professor, Lynn Margulis, spoke to women in the sciences at the University of Chicago. She was the ex-wife of Carl Sagan and had her only child with him. In what amounted to heresy, Dr. Margulis, told the women who had come to hear her speak that she thought it was not possible to be a serious scientist and a wife and mother. She recommended that women choose between the two and the audience was stunned.

I have a niece who was graduated from engineering school before she married a fellow engineer. She is very intelligent and capable, but she has never been employed as an engineer because she chose to be a wife and mother to four children. That choice doesn't make her less intelligent or her contributions less valuable.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 4:13 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Dewdly, you've referred to women as basically being baby-making machines numerous times so it's pretty disingenuous for you to act as if Botany were the bigot when all the readers of these comments know that it is you who is the Taliban man. Time and again you've said as much but now you're shocked that somebody calls you on it. Pathetic, as usual.

Ken_Volok (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 4:54 p.m. (Suggest removal)

You can't even see what you are doing, Ken. I speak of childbearing and motherhood and you interpret that as "baby making machines". That is crude, vulgar, derogatory, and insulting to mothers. You said it. I never did.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 5:16 p.m. (Suggest removal)

loonpt - you're a sexist; women are as intellectually capable as men in math and science. There are still cultural biases against women, but, for example, the ratio of boys/girls scoring over 700 on the math SAT declined from 13:1 to 3:1 from 1983 to 2005. That's not because women got a lot smarter over those 22 years. Men outnumbered women 4:1 in my UCSB Chemistry graduating class in the 70's, but by the mid-nineties, the average ratio was 3:1.

14noscams (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 5:18 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Oh spare us the fake outrage dewdly, we all know what you are. You've told us time again, bigot at best.

Ken_Volok (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 5:40 p.m. (Suggest removal)

"Botany,

Don't you realize that it is a crude insult to all mothers to refer to them as 'baby-making' factories?"

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 4:13 p.m.

I agree. I think women should be called "cotton factories" or "automobile factories", but not "baby-making" factories.

dolphinpod14 (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 6:37 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Charlotte Iserbyt is a great opponent of Marxist based "workforce training" v education.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBfIA...
The entire discussion of technical education, regardless of sex, is irrelevant, since the UN is anti-technology, anti-science, and we're teaching AGW Lysenkoism in colleges and universities since it's politically correct. Physical science and math and engineering deal with absolutes, and it's not compatible with the NWO political agenda based on social engineering/propaganda/mind control.

loonpt - I don't really think you're a sexist, but you watch your mouth there in the future.

14noscams (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 6:42 p.m. (Suggest removal)

It seems to me ("seems" is my disclaimer) that in Scandinavia the culture is far closer to being equal than in the U.S., and there is less of the male-bashing attitude.

I've read that even as the Vikings were reeking havoc, there were (at least some) women leaders among them.

What I do know is that there is a lot less crime and poverty over there, and they tend to speak better English than many native-born Americans. Perhaps we should cast an eye on what is going on there and be open to learning new things.

billclausen (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 6:47 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Well, the recidivism rate for people convicted of crimes is much closer to 25% than it is to our 77%, so it probably has a lot to do with our criminal justice system, too.
There have been many well-known women warriors in different cultures around the world, and Isael, Norway and Eritrea have mandatory military service laws for men and women.

14noscams (anonymous profile)
August 8, 2014 at 7:10 p.m. (Suggest removal)

billclausen,

Perhaps we should cast an eye on our progenitors. The Roman historian, Tacitus, described the relationship between man and woman among the Germanic tribes he observed 2000 years ago - about a thousand years before Christianity was imposed on Northern Europe.

"The wife does not bring a dower to the husband, but the husband to the wife. The parents and relatives are present, and pass judgment on the marriage-gifts, gifts not meant to suit a woman's taste, nor such as a bride would deck herself with, but oxen, a caparisoned steed, a shield, a lance, and a sword. With these presents the wife is espoused, and she herself in her turn brings her husband a gift of arms. This they count their strongest bond of union, these their sacred mysteries, these their gods of marriage. Lest the woman should think herself to stand apart from aspirations after noble deeds and from the perils of war, she is reminded by the ceremony which inaugurates marriage that she is her husband's partner in toil and danger, destined to suffer and to dare with him alike both in peace and in war."

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 1:08 a.m. (Suggest removal)

A question: Is a woman with four children derided as a "baby-making machine" even if she has a degree in engineering?

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 1:15 a.m. (Suggest removal)

14noscams,

The SAT is given to college applicants. Since there are more women than men entering college there are more women taking the SAT. That may account for some of the change in ratio. Fewer qualified men are entering college than in the past because it costs more than the expected return. It doesn't take years and a burden of debt to become a licensed electrician. It is becoming more common for young men to use the money that was set aside for college to start a business.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 1:55 a.m. (Suggest removal)

Great post, Botany, & dewdly loves twisting stuff; HE's the holocaust-denier but then ascribes that to others who bring it up. KV says it best: "Oh spare us the fake outrage dewdly, we all know what you are".
I've read Tacitus' Germania, and while fascinating I hardly think so-called civilized women and men want to return to this state. Further, these primitive German tribes (whom Tacitus was romanticizing as a lesson to the supposed "decadence" of his own Roman imperial times), are hardly our progenitors, dewdly. You know very little history, sleazebag.

DrDan (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 2:32 a.m. (Suggest removal)

While I did enjoy your thoughtful post, Botany, how do you square your spouse's pursuit of an advanced degree at UC with your savage denunciation of Prop 30 and almost all tax initiatives to support public education? Seriously, how??

DrDan (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 2:34 a.m. (Suggest removal)

Botany="The Great Botanical One".

billclausen (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 2:38 a.m. (Suggest removal)

While I love the reference to Tacitus, an unappreciated classical historian, and the Germania is a great early work of socio-anthropology, the use of the excerpt here is bizarre and off context. Even as a "European-American," I'd have to say my "progenitors" were likely from the Serengeti Plain somewhere. Unfortunately, Tacitus and his work, especially the Germania, have sometimes been misappropriated by certain political types to rationalize a certain ideal of the noble primitive and the supposed righteousness of his ur-society/paradise.

One of my own favorite quotes, applicable in many cases still today, is from Tacitus' Agricola when he discusses the folly of empire-building:
"...ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant." "Where they make a desert (or wasteland) and call it peace." Much more pithy in the original Latin, of course.

zappa (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 6:06 a.m. (Suggest removal)

From the sublime to the..... Why is Das Williams now listed as being from Carpinteria? Has he moved?

at_large (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 10:46 a.m. (Suggest removal)

Zappa,

Tacitus isn't bizarre in a discussion about gender equality. I posted it in answer to billclausen's suggestion that we learn something from the Scandinavians. It's a safe bet that clausen's progenitors are Northern European, not Bushmen. It makes more sense to learn about and "rationalize" our own cultural origins than to romanticize the "noble primitives" of other races who have traveled very different evolutionary paths.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 11:40 a.m. (Suggest removal)

Botany,

Do you insult a woman with four children as a "baby-making machine" even if she has a degree in engineering?

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 11:55 a.m. (Suggest removal)

dewdly: The majority of women who take the SAT are applying for admission to college in majors that don't require the math courses that would enable them to score over 700 on the math part of the SAT, and haven't taken those classes; the increase in the number of women college applicants scoring in the 1% on the SAT isn't a result of abolute numbers of applicants; the converse is true.
The percentage of women who choose college majors in the fields listed below is correlated with the number of women who take high school math classes required for college admission in these majors.
" In 2006, women earned almost 60 percent of bachelor’s degrees in biology and half of the degrees in chemistry, but earned only about 20 percent of the bachelor’s degrees in physics, computer science, and ehttp://www.aacu.org/ocww/volume39_1/feature.cfm?section=1ngineering (National Science Foundation 2008)"

14noscams (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 12:39 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Dewdly: Whether or not Negritude exists in my ancestry is anyone's guess, but my mom's side were Assyrians. Google them and find out.

billclausen (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 3:10 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Since 1990, state funding for each UC student has *dropped* more than 50% !!! We are not investing in our future wisely.

http://budget.universityofcalifornia....

EastBeach (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 4:09 p.m. (Suggest removal)

billclausen, I was going by the Danish patronymic ending of your screen name. A single nucleotide polymorphism will take the guesswork out of your ancestry.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 4:59 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Min Bestemore og min Bestefar var fra Norge. Jeg er kvarter Nordmann. Og dig?

billclausen (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 5:10 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Jeg snakker ikke norsk, så dette er takket være Google Translate.

Mine forfedre var en blanding av dansk, Nord tysk, engelsk, islandsk og svensk. Islendingene orginated i Norge, men dro for nye land i stedet for å sende til Harald Hårfagre. De tok seg koner fra Irland så genetikk av Island er en lik blanding av norsk og irsk.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 6:05 p.m. (Suggest removal)

thank you, zappa, and the ref. is to Hitler when zappa writes about the off-topic GERMANIA ref. by douche-bag dewdly: "Tacitus and his work, especially the Germania, have sometimes been misappropriated by certain political types to rationalize a certain ideal of the noble primitive... "
Love the Danish.
Back on topic: EB has given specific ref to how poorly we've been funding higher education in this State: this is human capital, and we also need to vote for the upcoming SBCC bond initiative.

DrDan (anonymous profile)
August 9, 2014 at 6:46 p.m. (Suggest removal)

"Jeg snakker ikke norsk, " I really don't either, aside from a little bit.
From what I gather, you're saying your ancestors were a combination of Danish,Nowegian, German, English, Icelandic, and Swedish. Icelandic culture came from Norway, but set out for new lands and were sent by Harald Harfargre, They took their wives from Ireland (I'm assuming when they conquered it) and hence the blending of Norwegian and Irish.

Did I get fairly close in my translation?

billclausen (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 3:07 a.m. (Suggest removal)

I'm fluent in Icelandic, and recently translated Snorri Snurlesson's Norse epic, the prose Edda. I won't utilize it here so as not to humiliate either Bill or sleazebag.

DrDan (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 3:39 a.m. (Suggest removal)

This is good, but also great PR for Das, and his record is NOT clean in his support for STUDENTS at UC. In 2012 he was all over his AB29 which was trying to fund $550 million for clean air stuff at UC: WHAT ABOUT THE STUDENTS, DAS!!? Oh, you just figured out tuition and UC cost are out of whack now in Aug. 2014; you're CHAIR of the Assembly Higher Ed. Committee... this is rank PR and more BS from Das Williams. See http://www.independent.com/news/2012/...

DrDan (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 6:42 a.m. (Suggest removal)

If I was Governor and wanted to cut the bloated UC budgets to pay for better elementary schools, I know who I'd get to represent the UC system.....

Georgy (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 9:36 a.m. (Suggest removal)

billclausen,
Much better than I would have done without the translation program! Harald Finehair was reputed to be autocratic which compelled some Vikings to look for new lands to settle. The Icelanders kept excellent genealogical records so it is possible for me to trace my own ancestry back to the settlement of Iceland in the 9th century.

dewdly (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 2:56 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Stop carrying water for the teachers unions Das, and you could get education costs down in an instant.

I direct you please to Transparent California to view both salaries benefit and pensions currently paid to SBCC and UCSB employees for their nine-month years.

Don't just tell one side of the high costs of education story when both sides of the equation are now in public view, along with the success levels we are now getting for these most lavish expenditures in education today.

This must be the official counterpunch to the recent headlines showing California K-12 teachers were the highest paid in the nation. Now Das is out dutifully saying we need to spend even more money, regardless of the continued poor outcomes that are now normal in this state.

Clue to Das, don't threaten us with poor educational attainment levels in the future. It is already happening right now, regardless of how much money we keep throwing at the problems. Clean up CSU teacher training then let's talk again.

JarvisJarvis (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 6:52 p.m. (Suggest removal)

Scandinavia: small countries, single thread of history, strong work ethic, Protestent values, monoculture societies who is currently doing multi-culturalism very badly with harsh winters that grows sefl-discipline and impulse control.

JarvisJarvis (anonymous profile)
August 10, 2014 at 7:01 p.m. (Suggest removal)

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