Cats cannot brush their own teeth. This may seem like stating the obvious,
but there are a huge number of cats out there with severe dental
disease that desperately need treatment. Most owners are unaware of
their cat’s teeth problem until either a vet checks the animal’s
mouth, or the mouth becomes so sore and breath so foul that the
owner’s attention is drawn to it.
Cats can suffer from a number of different dental problems, but
one of the most common is what is known as a feline odontoclastic
resorptive (FORL) lesion. These are essentially cavities like
humans can suffer from, though they are formed slightly differently
and can occur in any tooth. The most commonly affected teeth are
the lower premolars.
Another very common presentation is the presence of gingivitis,
simply meaning inflammation of the gums where the gums meet the
teeth. Gingivitis can be a reaction to bacterial infection, or as a
result of a viral infection such as feline calicivirus.
Are some cats more likely to get dental disease than
Yes. Brachycephalic (short nosed) breeds
such as Persians often suffer from dental disease, though any cat
can do so. Older cats tend to have more teeth problems than younger
cats because tartar builds up with time. Outdoor cats that hunt
tend to have good teeth because crunching through the bones of mice
and other prey helps clean their teeth. Any good vet will check a
cat’s teeth thoroughly as part of a routine annual vaccination
check up to advise whether any dental treatment is necessary.
Clearly, diet plays a major role in the development of dental
disease. Cats that eat a dry biscuit-based or complete diet are
less likely to get dental disease compared with cats on wet tinned
food merely because crunchy hard food helps to stop tartar
attaching to the teeth. However, diet alone is not enough for some
cats and brushing may be necessary if you are to avoid the prospect
of dental scaling and polishing under general anesthetic further
down the line.
How do I know if my cat has dental disease?
The common signs to look out for are:
1. Discoloration of the teeth, with yellow or brown tartar
(known as “calculus”) adhering to the teeth, mainly on the cheek
2. Reddening of the gums (known as gingivitis).
3. Recession on the gum to expose some of the tooth root.
4. Presence of cavities (FORL lesions).
5. Bad breath (halitosis).
6. Dribbling more than is usual.
7. Difficulty eating dry biscuit type foods.
How do I go about brushing my cats teeth?
Firstly, buy a suitable toothbrush. Human toothbrushes are
usually too hard for cats, though can be used if they have soft
bristles. Ideally, you want a toothbrush with a long handle and an
angled head to better fit the mouth, and extra soft bristles. An
alternative is using a finger brush, which fits over the tip of
Next, find a suitable toothpaste. Cats
do not really like the mint taste of human toothpastes, so the
whole operation will run more smoothly if you use a toothpaste
designed for pets. Some pet toothpastes come in meaty flavors so
that your pet enjoys the experience. These pet toothpastes usually
contain enzymes that help control plaque. Fluoride may be
incorporated to help control bacteria. Tip: try placing the
toothpaste between the bristles if you can rather than on the top
of them, as this will achieve better cleaning.
Now you have the equipment, try brushing the teeth. Most pets
will accept this if you are gentle. It is much easier if you start
when they are kittens so that they are accustomed to the procedure,
but even older cats can grow to accept it. The outside of the teeth
(the cheek side) is the most important to clean, as the cats tongue
helps clean the inside of the teeth to an extent.
The toothbrush bristles should be placed where the teeth and
gums meet at a 45-degree angle. The movement should be in an oval
pattern. Try to gently force the bristle ends into the area around
the base of the tooth as well as into the gap between the teeth.
Aim for ten short back-and-forth motions, covering several teeth at
a time, then move the brush to a new location.
When starting for the first time, do it twice daily without
toothpaste for 1-2 weeks. This way your cat will become familiar
with the feel of the brush quickly, and you can then start doing it
with toothpaste. In the long term, once weekly brushing is usually
My cat already has a rotten mouth. Need I be worried
about getting his or her teeth done at the vets?
As long as your cat does not have a pre-existing heart or
respiratory problem, you need not be worried. Even if they do,
chances are your cat will be fine. Dental scaling and polishing is
done on a daily basis at many veterinary clinics, and does not have
any risks in itself beyond the anesthetic risk that exists with
every general anesthetic. Many clinics will do pre-anesthetic blood
tests for geriatric patients as a matter of protocol, to check on
their liver and kidney function. If your cat has severe dental
disease or FORL cavities, he or she may require teeth to be
extracted. This is not something you should worry about in itself,
as it is much better for your cat to have no tooth than a painful
tooth. Many cats can eat dry food comfortably without any teeth at
all as they tend to swallow biscuits whole rather than chew them
If you think your cat might require professional dental
treatment, you should book an appointment with your vet as soon as
possible. Many cats develop a new lease of life when their mouth
suddenly becomes pain free, it may be the greatest gift you could
ever give your pet.
Dr. David Brooks is part of the online veterinary team at
WhyDoesMyPet.com. Veterinarians, Vet Technicians,
Nurses, Trainers, Behaviorists, Breeders and Pet Enthusiasts are
here to answer your pet questions and concerns… Our dedicated
community of caring experts are waiting to offer you advice, second
opinions and support.